«And thus one proceeded, with no clear idea of where one was heading. Occasionally one passed by well-kept lawns, where a white peacock dragged a tail along in its wake, and the crisp, light garments of women made their appearance like bouquets of flowers. It was altogether like a painting by de Nittis …».
I came across this brief passage only a few days ago, as I was rereading the Parisian memoirs of Alphonse Daudet, and I quote them because they convey, far better than a lengthy discourse, the glorious ten year achievement of this young painter from Barletta.
De Nittis arrived in Paris at the age of twenty. Full of ambition but without a penny in his pocket (all his money had been stolen on the journey), he was a complete stranger to Paris. He possessed only a handful of his small painted panels, the joy of the Macchiaioli, by way of presentation.
However, with the first exhibition of his paintings at the Salon, Peppino – as he was nicknamed by his friends – immediately won over the public, critics and collectors.
Moreover, he made himself at home in Parisian literary circles, impressing his contemporaries with his unmistakable talent. Edmond de Goncourt, that intelligent, sophisticated and vitriolic biographer, made frequent mention of de Nittis in his celebrated journal – in which the artist was perhaps the only figure to emerge unscathed. And if we browse through the minute diaries of Léontine, the painter’s wife, we discover under each Saturday’s entry the names of the guests who gathered at their home: Manet, Zola, Oscar Wilde, Princess Matilde Bonaparte, one or two «passage migrants» like Telemaco Signorini, Diego Martelli and Edmondo De Amicis.
Giuseppe de Nittis was born in Barletta on February 25th, 1846, the fourth son of don Raffaele de Nittis and Teresa Buracchia. His parents were affluent property owners, but some months before Giuseppe’s birth, don Raffaele was arrested as a political suspect. On his release, his nerves destroyed by two years imprisonment, don Raffaele committed suicide. Giuseppe was brought up with his brothers in the household of his paternal grandparents, where he soon showed a scarse propensity for study but a remarkable interest in pencil and paint.
After receiving his initial instruction from Giovambattista Calò, de Nittis persuaded his family against their will to let him enrol at the Istituto di Belle Arti in Naples.
But the Academy – and indeed academic study of any kind – was not for him, and after two years’ attendance he was expelled for insubordination; certainly, rebellion was clearly evident in those eyes of his which strove to observe without prejudice and record every aspect of reality – be it faces, trees or buildings.
The play of light and shade in the sky inspired many a striking harmony of colour and many a passionate line in his memoirs.
From 1863 to 1867, along with his friends Federico Rossano and Marco De Gregorio, later joined by Alceste Campriani, Antonino Leto and others, de Nittis took to painting en plein air; Portici, Naples and Barletta all witnessed the enthusiasm of these young painters as they braved wind, sun and rain, producing a veritable plethora of painted studies. These years were decisive far his stylistic formation, since in the intense freedom of that moment de Nittis learned to distinguish truth to nature from faithfulness to detail; simultaneously, the colours of his palette matured. The group was called the Scuola di Resina; but Domenico Morelli derogatively nicknamed it the Repubblica di Portici because their recalcitrant spirits disowned any master.
In 1864 de Nittis received his first important recognition: two minute compositions both entitled L’avanzarsi della Tempesta (The approaching storm), poorly hung at the Neapolitan Promotrice exhibition, but which nevertheless caught the attention of Adriano Cecioni, a sculptor and also one of Italy’s most perceptive art critics, who complimented their author and foretold his future success. In fact, two years later, de Nittis had the honour of seeing two of his paintings purchased by the King at the same annual exhibition: Un casale nei dintorni di Napoli (A village on the outskirts of Naples) and La traversata degli Appennini (The crossing of the Appenines).
No longer an unfamiliar figure, Peppino was closely observed by younger painters. Thanks to Cecioni, his fame reached the ears of the Florentine Macchiaioli, so that he was given a warm welcome in Florence in 1866, and his small painted panels universally admired.
During 1866 and 1867 de Nittis undertook journeys to Naples, Palermo, Barletta, Rome, Florence and Venice; in the summer of 1867 he was in Turin, preparing for his departure for Paris.
In Paris he met with further success: Gerôme encouraged him to faire de la figure; Meissonier asked him to paint the landscape backgrounds for his much demanded figure pieces; for the enormous sum of three hundred francs, Reitlinger purchased two of his small paintings on panel. However the road to success was subject to the artist’s acceptance of a compromise with his instinctive sense of taste.
Although de Nittis, as Diego Martelli perceptively observed, was no martyr to the cause of art, he heeded Cecioni’s advice to maintain his independence and, as his modest funds were running low, returned briefly to Italy.
At the end of 1868, de Nittis was again in Paris, where he let himself be guided by the not disinterested advice of Reitlinger and his own hankering after easy profit, dedicating his undeniable gifts to costume pieces in the manner of Meissonier, Stevens and Fortuny. However his exquisite sense of colour and design was far superior.
Once again Cecioni, who had seen his paintings at the 1869 Salon, recalled him to the straight and narrow way of art.
De Nittis reacted so guiltily to this reprimand that he abandoned the painting he was currently working on, the Concerto in giardino al tempo di Luigi XVI (Garden concert in the age of Louis XVI), and resumed painting directly from nature.
The 1870 war obliged de Nittis to leave France for Italy and so to revisit the places where he had learned to paint, thus enabling him to correct the hitherto equivocal course of his career. By the time of his return to Paris the following year, his ideas had clearly reached maturity.
A small painting exhibited at the 1872 Salon, La strada da Brindisi a Barletta (The road from Brindisi to Barletta), attracted universal acclaim. Paul Mantz, editor of the Gazette des Beaux-Arts, was to write: «We shall always talk of that violet-blue shadow which the small carriage, painted by de Nittis, casts on the pale terrain of the dusty road. That shadow, so aptly coloured, represented a milestone in modem painting and a lesson for the Impressionists themselves».
De Nittis had little hesitation in rescinding the albeit remunerative contract with Goupil, a sacrifice made to preserve his artistic freedom which had been ensnared by the dealer’s assiduous courtesy. And so it was that the 1874 Jury, conscious of Goupil’s influence, only accepted one of the three of the paintings de Nittis presented that year: Guidando al Bois (A ride in the Bois de Boulogne), Tra le spighe del grano (Amongst ears of corn) and Che freddo! (Freezing!). The last painting met with an overwhelming success.
A letter to Cecioni and his friends in Florence reveals the contentment of de Nittis at regaining his independence; he participated contemporaneously with five paintings in the historic first exhibition held by the Impressionists on the premises of Nadar’s photographic studio, along with Degas, Renoir, Sisley, Pissarro, Boudin, Cézanne, Lépine, Bracquemond and Berthe Morisot.
The same year de Nittis made his first trip to London, where his gift for assimilation and intuitive understanding of local character was expressed in a series of paintings dedicated to London life. De Nittis had proved a scrupulous and observant interpreter of the limpid, grey tones of the Paris sky, of the elegant bearing of the Parisienne type and of the gentle outlines of the trees in the Bois de Boulogne; similarly the crowded squalor of the slums and the ennui anglais of the aristocratic residences, the fogs and the bustle of London life were all fixed in the enchanted mirror held up to them by this painter of the deep Italian South, who captured their Englishness better than they. Westminster, La domenica a Londra (Sunday in London), Waterloo Bridge and Piccadilly are amongst the most successful interpretations of the mood of a city and its inhabitants.
De Nittis had married the Parisian Léontine Gruville in 1869. His interests were confined to family and work – in particular, intermittent studies of the Neapolitan countryside during his brief visits to Italy, or shut up in a fiacre or cab intent on recording episodes from the pulsating life of Paris or London.
1878 witnessed his personal triumph at the Exposition Universelle: his painting, Le rovine delle Tuileries (The ruins of the Tuileries) was purchased by the French government for the Musée d’Art Moderne, which awarded him the Légion d’Honneur as well. The artist also donated his La Place des Pyramides to the same museum, after buying it back from Goupil for 25,000 francs. It was a moment of acclaim, tempered by the criticism of the envious.
De Nittis was a stout little man; his good-natured smile shone out from a swarthy countenance, framed by a black beard. He shrugged off criticism indulgently and continued working unperturbed. During his later years he developed an interest in pastels, a technique particularly suited to his temperament and to his predilection for subtle nuances of colour. Subsequently, certain innovations can be observed in the portraits and cityscapes of this period, most noticeably in the views of the races at Longchamps (the version here exhibited includes a self-portrait).
Unfortunately, overwork reduced the painter’s resistance, and a previously unexpressed inertia, an unidentifiable melancholy, permeated his late paintings.
His lucid vision dimmed and faltered; and yet he worked with desperate energy even though his canvas appeared to be obscured, as it were, by a dark veil. Two or three versions of an identical composition – his wife and son in the garden – alternated on his easel. On August 21st, 1884, a stroke precipitated his end.
De Nittis cannot be assigned to any specific school or movement. He went through the experiences of the Neapolitan Academy (both old and new), the pseudo academicism of Gerôme and Meissonier, the Macchiaioli and the Impressionists: in the last analysis, he was true to himself. He borrowed from Impressionism what he found to be congenial and elaborated on it; he was receptive to their two principle lines of research: the representation of atmospherical effects and the representation of modem life. He did not push the one to the indeterminate extremes of Monet’s chromatic harmonies, nor the other to the ruthless physical deformation of Degas.
Unhampered by dogmatic theory, he adapted his technique to suit the occasion: for example, his practice of juxtaposing pure colours in the Impressionist idiom when a note of brilliance was required, but more frequently employing tones created on his palette or obtained with judicious glazes. Furthermore, unlike Monet, Renoir or Zandomeneghi, de Nittis did not exclude the use of earth colours from his palette, which nevertheless never appeared «muddy».
In the use of warm greys and delicate variations of brown, de Nittis was second to none, although his subtle harmonies of colour belie an admiration for Corot.
His nervous use of the brush, his restless studies in pastel and watercolour, together with his passion for Japanese prints and brightly coloured posters, all indicate a concern to render accessible the intangible or allusive: the impression of atmosphere and those mysterious reflections of light which modify or accentuate shape and form.
De Nittis was known as the Guardi of his time and there is little doubt that his paintings provide a precious means of documenting the spirit of the epoch in which he lived. As regards the cities he depicted, no other painter like de Nittis managed to represent the elusive charm of the streets of Paris, their strange vitality and that special atmosphere which transports the observer to a realm of visionary timelessness. London too, one colossal grimy factory, a place of contagion and riches, was similarly defined by the artist’s insatiable eye. As in those paintings by Degas which were influenced by Japanese prints, de Nittis also observed the world from an unusual viewpoint: from a terrace, the window of a train or from beneath a bridge.
He was criticized for his insistence on the female figure, as seen at her most elegant and seductive. He represented her as he knew her, and his Parisienne of the 1880s, coquettish but self-assured, is unmistakably his creation, just as the effervescent femme fatale of the Belle Époque was Boldini’s, or the Dutch girl in long silk stockings of the 1920s was Van Dongen’s.
It is easy to understand the immediate success of Che freddo! at a time when figures in period costume were the order of the day. One has to admire the brilliant immediacy of that image of three women shivering in the cold of the Bois de Boulogne.
The famous historian Bénédite wrote: «No one today can possibly imagine the extraordinary fame which de Nittis enjoyed in his lifetime».
In fact, the announcement of his death caused widespread consternation amongst the press. One critic even went so far as to claim that the decease of the artist signified the simultaneous end both of Impressionism and European painting in general. His funeral was attended by his friends Dumas, Degas, Rodin, Puvis de Chavannes, Forain and Daudet. De Nittis was buried in the Père-Lachaise Cemetery. His epitaph was written by no less a person than Alexandre Dumas fils.
Enrico Piceni, 1980
Giuseppe de Nittis was born in Barletta on 25th February, from a rich family of landowners.
After studying painting with Giambattista Calò, an artist from Barletta educated in Naples, and with the “morelliano” painter Dartoli, in December he applies to the Institute of Fine Arts in Naples.
Admitted to the Institute, he studies with Giuseppe Mancinelli and Gabriele Smargiassi.
For his rebellious and anti-academic nature, he is expelled from the Institute. He settles in Portici, just outside Naples, where he spends his time with Marco de Gregorio and Federico Rossano, among the others. With them he founds the “School of Resina” – also called “Republic of Portici” by the rivals – with the aim of representing nature from life, by reversing the traditional canons.
He realizes his first dated painting, Appuntamento nel bosco di Portici. He takes part in the third Neapolitan Promotrice. His works, among which Pianura nei dintorni di Barletta and a Marina, impress the refined critic, painter and sculptor Adriano Cecioni.
He paints Casale nei dintorni di Napoli, now at the Museum of Capodimonte (Naples).
In August he goes to Paris, where he meets Gérôme and Meissonier. Influenced by the latter, he paints genre scenes. He gets in touch with the art dealer Adolphe Goupil. In October he goes to Florence for the Promotrice exhibition. His works, in particular La traversata degli Appennini (Naples, Museum of Capodimonte), are very successful among the Macchiaioli painters.
In autumn he reaches Paris resolved, this time, to remain there for a longer period. He signs a contract with Goupil and another with the German art dealer Reitlinger.
He marries Léontine Gruville. His genre scenes with characters in costume, according to the Goupil style, are widely acclaimed at the Salon.
In springs he moves with his wife to his country house in Jonchère. Once again he takes part in the Salon with Signora presso il caminetto and Visita mattutina. The Franco-Prussian War forces him to return to Italy, where, moving around the southern sunny countryside, he renews his enthusiasm for the plein air painting.
From Apulia he reaches Campania, but in September, after the end of the Paris Commune, he is in Paris again.
At the beginning of the year he signs an exclusive contract with Goupil. Then he moves with his wife to Portici, where he paints Strada da Brindisi a Barletta. In May this painting is successfully exhibited at the Salon. In the same period he realizes the series of little boards inspired by the landscape of the slopes of Vesuvio in eruption.
In July his son Jacques was born in Resina.
In mid February he comes back to Paris, where he meets Degas. He is now determined to paint without any conditioning, dedicating himself with the look of a flâneur to painting the modern Paris of Haussmann. In this period he realizes Al Bois de Boulogne, a scene of fashionable and elegant life.
At the Salon he exhibits Tra le spighe del grano and Che freddo!, having great success from the critics. Encouraged by Degas, in April he takes part in the first Impressionists exhibition in the photographer Nadar’s studio with five works: Paesaggio presso Blois, Vesuvio sotto la luna, Campagna vesuviana, Studio di donna, Strada d’Italia. Goupil, contrary to this kind of unofficial initiatives, reminds him the terms of his contract. Feeling uncomfortable both with him and with the “rebellious painters”, de Nittis moves to London just before the inauguration and rescinds the contract with Goupil. Here he meets Mr. Mardew and the banker Kaye Knowles, who will be one of his most important collector.
He presents Place de la Concorde sotto la pioggia and Veduta di Bougival at the Salon. During his stay in London, he paints Piccadilly. In the summer he comes back to Italy, passing through Switzerland, where he lives on the Lake of Quattro Cantoni (which is also the subject of one of his painting, now in the Ojetti collection).
At the Salon, in April, he presents Sulla strada di Castellammare and Place des Pyramides, one of his most famous works.
Once again at the Salon he shows up Parigi vista dal Pont Royal and the watercolors Boulevard Haussmann and Place Saint Augustin.
At the Universal Exposition in Paris he exhibits a series of views of London and Paris, that consecrate him as the painter of the contemporary city, able to register the real life in perfect detail. Among the others: Place des Pyramides, Green Park, Westminster, Trafalgar Square, Ritorno dalle corse, L’avenue du Bois de Boulogne. He obtains a medal, followed by the Legion of honor. Thus he reaches the peak of his artistic and worldly success.
He spends the year between London, Paris and Naples. At the Salon he presents the hors concours La venditrice di fammiferi a Londra. In Italy he paints Il pranzo di Posillipo. He starts to use pastels, improving this technique to the highest expression.
His family moves to rue Viète, in the elegant district of Monceau. Their house will become a meeting point for the most famous French artists and intellectuals – Degas, Manet, Desboutin, Caillebotte, the Goncourt, Daudet, Duranty, Clarétie, Hérédia – invited by the enterprising Léontine to her Saturday night parties. He starts painting La parfumerie violet. He takes part in the National Exposition in Turin with five works, among which Ritorno dalle corse, Passa il treno and Nei campi intorno a Londra. The reception was not very warm.
At the Cercle des Mirlitons he presents the triptych Le corse al Bois de Boulogne (Rome, Modern Art Gallery) and other fifteen large pastels.
Bronchitis confines him to bed for a long period.
He works tirelessly. Among other things he paints one of the most appealing portrait of his wife Léontine, Giornata d’inverno.
His brother Vincenzo commits suicide in Naples.
He paints one of his last masterpiece, Il salotto della contessa Mathilde, in homage to the literary world and to the Parisian high society. The French Minister Jules Ferry buys Les ruines des Tuileries for the Musée du Luxembourg. In December the painter goes to Italy to pass the winter in a milder climate, but owing to his bad health conditions he can’t work.
Back to Paris, he sends the Salon La guardiana delle oche and Colazione in giardino. He finishes his only self-portrait, a standing full length figure in his house in rue Viète. In June he settles in Saint-Germain-en-Laye with Léontine. On 21st August he dies of a stroke, leaving unfinished L’amaca, the last portrait of his beloved wife.
J. Clarétie, J. De Nittis, in “La Presse”, giugno
R. Duranty, De Nittis, in “La Vie Moderne”, 19 giugno
P. Mantz, Les pastels de M. J. De Nittis, in “Le Temps”, 24 maggio
D. Martelli, Giuseppe De Nittis, in “Fieramosca”, 13 settembre (ristampato in Scritti d’arte di Diego Martelli, a cura di A. Boschetto, Sansoni Editore, Firenze, 1952)
V. Spinazzola, Giuseppe De Nittis, Dellisanti, Barletta
V. Pica, Giuseppe De Nittis. L’uomo e l’artista, Alfieri & Lacroix, Milano
V. Pica, Giuseppe De Nittis e la scuola napoletana di pittura, in “Emporium”, maggio
L. Bénédite, De Nittis 1846-1884, René Van den Berg, Parigi
E. Piceni, De Nittis, “Poligono”, a. III, nn. 1-2, gennaio-febbraio
E. Piceni, Giuseppe De Nittis, Istituto Nazionale Luce, Roma
E. Piceni, Giuseppe De Nittis, Mondadori, Milano
E. Piceni, Note e ricordi di De Nittis, insegnò ai francesi a veder le loro donne, in “Corriere d’Informazione”, 10-11 marzo
E. Piceni, De Nittis, Mondadori, Milano
M. Pittaluga-E. Piceni, De Nittis, Bramante, Milano
G. De Nittis, Taccuino 1870-1884, Leonardo da Vinci, Bari
G. De Nittis, Taccuino 1870-1884, a cura di E. Mazzoccoli-N. Rettmeyer (con prefazione di E. Cecchi), Bari
E. Piceni, De Nittis, in “I Maestri del colore”, Fabbri, Milano
M. Monteverdi-E. Piceni, I De Nittis di Barletta, Azienda Autonoma Soggiorno e Turismo, Barletta
E. Piceni, De Nittis. L’uomo e l’opera, vol. I, Bramante, Milano
E. Piceni, De Nittis batte tanti francesi, in “Casaviva”, n. 74, febbraio
E. Piceni, De Nittis. L’uomo e l’opera, vol. II, Bramante, Milano
E. Piceni, Giuseppe De Nittis ci sorprende ancora, in “Arte”, n. 144, settembre
R. Bossaglia, La lezione di De Nittis, in catalogo della mostra (Milano-Bari, 1990), pp. 58-63
P. Dini-G.L. Marini, De Nittis. La vita, i documenti, le opere dipinte, Allemandi, Torino
G. Matteucci, Un “gentiluomo dell’Impressionismo”, in catalogo della mostra (Milano-Bari, 1990), pp. 30-47
R. Monti, Tra “vero” e “voir”: l’itinerario artistico di De Nittis, in catalogo della mostra (Milano-Bari, 1990), pp. 10-18
C. Farese Sperken, Giuseppe De Nittis e il suo “entourage”, in catalogo della mostra (Livorno, 1998-1999), pp. 66-71
G. Matteucci, “Intender non la può chi non la prova…”, in catalogo della mostra (Livorno, 1998-1999), pp. 9-28
G. Belli, Impressionisti? No grazie!, in catalogo della mostra (Trento, 2001), pp. 11-15
C. Farese Sperken, Modernità e mondanità nell’opera di Giuseppe De Nittis, in catalogo della mostra (Trento, 2001), pp. 47-53
C. Sisi, Diego Martelli e la nouvelle peinture, in catalogo della mostra (Trento, 2001), pp. 23-29
P.G. Castagnoli, Lo sguardo del flâneur nella pittura di De Nittis, in catalogo della mostra (Torino, 2002), pp. 11-15
B. Cinelli, Giuseppe De Nittis: “paysagiste de la rue parisienne”, in catalogo della mostra (Torino, 2002), pp. 17-37
M. M. Lamberti, Mitografie parigine nel secondo Ottocento, in catalogo della mostra (Torino, 2002), pp. 39-55
R. De Grada, De Nittis, impressionista italiano…ed europeo, in catalogo della mostra (Roma-Milano, 2004-2005), pp. 29-31
A. Paolucci, De Nittis e la poesia della città moderna, in catalogo della mostra (Roma-Milano, 2004-2005), pp. 27-28
E. Angiuli, Giuseppe De Nittis: “Je serai peintre”, in catalogo della mostra (Parigi- Parma, 2010-2011), pp. 12-17
M. Lagrange, Giuseppe De Nittis et le tourbillon de la vie parisienne, in catalogo della mostra (Parigi-Parma, 2010-2011), pp. 18-25
E. Angiuli, Giuseppe de Nittis, in catalogo della mostra (Padova, 2013), pp. 12-22
G. Matteucci, Due artisti, due anime, due destini, in catalogo della mostra (Padova, 2013), pp. 30-41
P. Nicholls, Marketing in diretta. Goupil e gli artisti italiani al Salon 1870-1884, in catalogo della mostra (Rovigo-Bordeaux, 2013-2014), pp. 76-83
P. Serafini, La Maison Goupil e gli artisti italiani. Dall’identificazione dei dipinti contenuti nei registri acquisti e vendite alla storia del gusto e del collezionismo: uno dei percorsi possibili, in catalogo della mostra (Rovigo-Bordeaux, 2013-2014), pp. 16-55
Parigi, Exposition Universelle de Paris
Torino, IV Esposizione Nazionale di Belle Arti
Parigi, Galerie Bernheim Jeune De l’Art, J.De Nittis. Tableaux, Pastels, acquarelles, dessins, études et croquis, maggio
Venezia, IV Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte
Venezia, XI Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte
Roma, III Biennale Romana
Londra, Burlington House, Exhibition of Italian Art Held in the Galleries of the Royal Academy, gennaio-febbraio
Barletta, Cinquantenario della morte di Giuseppe De Nittis. Mostra retrospettiva, settembre-ottobre
Roma, Palazzo Venezia, Mostra di dipinti francesi in Italia e italiani in Francia
New York, Galleria Wildenstein- Metropolitan Museum, Pittori italiani dell’Ottocento, gennaio-marzo
Napoli, Villa Comunale, Padiglione Pompeiano, De Nittis e i pittori della “Scuola di Resina”, a cura di E. Piceni
New York, Stair Sainty Matthiesen, Three Italians Friends of the Impressionists. Boldini, De Nittis, Zandomeneghi, a cura di G. Matteucci-E. Steingräber, 14 marzo-20 aprile
Montecatini Terme-Torino, Azienda Autonoma di Cura e Soggiorno-Mole Antonelliana, Dal Caffè Michelangelo al Caffè Nouvelle Athènes. I Macchiaiioli tra Firenze e Parigi, a cura di P. Dini, 23 agosto-5 ottobre, 25 ottobre-30 novembre
Montecatini Terme, Azienda Autonoma di Cura e Soggiorno, La donna e la moda nella pittura italiana del secondo ‘800 nelle collezioni private, a cura di P. Dini, 30 luglio-30 settembre
Milano-Bari, Palazzo della Permanente-Pinacoteca Provinciale, Giuseppe De Nittis, a cura di R. Monti-C. Farese Sperken-G. Matteucci-M. Basile Bonsante-R. Bossaglia, aprile-maggio, giugno-settembre
Mariano di Traversatolo (Parma), Giuseppe De Nittis. I dipinti del Museo Civico di Barletta alla Fondazione Magnani Rocca, a cura di M.B. Bonsante- C. Farese Sperken, aprile-giugno
Livorno, Villa Mimbelli, Museo Civico “Giovanni Fattori”, Aria di Parigi nella pittura italiana del secondo Ottocento, a cura di G. Matteucci, 4 dicembre-5 aprile
Trento, Palazzo delle Albere, Boldini, De Nittis, Zandomeneghi. Mondanità e costume nella Parigi fin de siècle, a cura di G. Belli, 12 aprile-29 luglio
Torino, Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Giuseppe De Nittis e la pittura della vita moderna in Europa, a cura di P.G. Castagnoli, 16 febbraio-26 maggio
Ferrara, Palazzo dei Diamanti, Degas e gli italiani di Parigi, a cura di A. Dumas, 14 settembre-16 novembre
Mozzecane, Villa Vecelli Cavriani, De Nittis a Léontine, a cura di I. Chignola-P. Bertelli, 1 febbraio-30 maggio
Roma-Milano, Chiostro del Bramante-Fondazione Antonio Mazzotta, De Nittis. Impressionista italiano, a cura di R. Miracco, 13 novembre-27 febbraio, 22 marzo-19 giugno
Barletta, Palazzo della Marra-Pinacoteca De Nittis, De Nittis e Tissot. Pittori della vita moderna, a cura di E. Angiuli-K. Spurrell, 12 marzo-2 luglio
Barletta, Palazzo della Marra, Pinacoteca G. De Nittis, Zandomeneghi, De Nittis, Renoir. I pittori della felicità, a cura di T. Sparagni-E. Angiuli, 31 marzo-15 luglio
Parigi-Parma, Petit Palais, Musée des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Paris-Palazzo del Governatore, Giuseppe De Nittis. La modernité élégante, a cura di G. Chazal-D. Morel-E. Angiuli, 21 ottobre-16 gennaio, 6 febbraio-8 maggio
Padova, Palazzo Zabarella, De Nittis, a cura di E. Angiuli-F. Mazzocca, 19 gennaio-26 maggio
Rovigo-Bordeaux, Palazzo Roverella, Galerie des Beaux-Arts, La Maison Goupil e l’Italia. Il successo italiano a Parigi negli anni dell’Impressionismo, a cura di P. Serafini, 22 febbraio-23 giugno, 23 ottobre-2 febbraio